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Glasgow declaration on forest and land use

2021 NOV 8

Preliminary   > Environment and Ecology   >   Miscellaneous   >   Climate change

Why in news

  • 127 countries signed the Glasgow declaration on land and land-use at the 26th Conference of Parties (CoP)

Glasgow declaration on forest and land use:

  • The historic declaration initiated by the United Kingdom aims to halt and reverse forest loss and land degradation by 2030
  • The declaration was endorsed outside the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) process and is therefore legally non-binding.
  • The 127 signatories account for about 90% of global tree cover and 85% of the world’s primary tropical forests

Major Highlights of the Declaration:

  • Conservation:
    • Conserve forests and other terrestrial ecosystems and accelerate their restoration.
  • Sustainable Development:
    • Facilitate trade and development policies, internationally and domestically, that promote sustainable development, and sustainable commodity production and consumption.
  • Building Resilience:
    • Reduce vulnerability, build resilience and enhance rural livelihoods, including through empowering local communities.
  • Recognising Indigenous Rights:
    • The development of profitable, sustainable agriculture, and recognition of the multiple values of forests, while recognising the rights of Indigenous.
  • Financial Commitments:
    • Reaffirm international financial commitments and significantly increase finance and investment from a wide variety of public and private sources.
  • Achieving these outcomes under NYDF could achieve over seven billion tonnes (CO2e) of cost-effective climate change mitigation per year by 2030.

India’s stand:

  • India, Argentina, Mexico, Saudi Arabia and South Africa are the only G20 countries that did not sign the declaration.
  • India’s objection was that “the declaration interlinks trade to climate change and forest issues”. India stated that trade falls under the World Trade Organization and should not be brought under climate change declarations


Consider the following statements regarding ‘Glasgow declaration on land and land-use’:

1. It is legally binding agreement signed under UNFCCC.

2. All G20 countries are part of the agreement.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2