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2023 OCT 23

Preliminary   > Geography   >   Resource geography   >   Resource geography

Why in news?

  • Recently, China, the world’s top graphite producer (around 65%) and exporter, has decided to curb exports of key battery material.

About Graphite

  • Graphite is a naturally occurring mineral composed of carbon. It is one of the three crystalline forms of carbon, with the other two being diamond and amorphous carbon (such as charcoal or carbon black).
  • Graphite has a hexagonal crystal structure in which carbon atoms are arranged in layers or sheets. These layers are weakly bonded together, allowing them to easily slide past each other, giving graphite its lubricating properties.
  • Graphite is a good conductor of both electricity and heat. It is used in the production of electrodes for batteries and in the electronics industry.
  • Graphite is commonly known for its use in pencils. The "lead" in pencils is actually a mixture of graphite and clay.
  • Other applications include crucibles, foundry facings, polishes, arc lamps, batteries, brushes for electric motors, and cores of nuclear reactors.

Global Reserves

  • China produces two-thirds of the world’s graphite, but compared to global reserves, the Asian country is not the only option.
  • According to the United States Geological Survey, Turkey (27.3%) and Brazil (22.4%) together own half of the world's natural graphite resources. China comes third, sitting on 16%, followed by Madagascar (7.9%)



Consider the following statements regarding Graphite:

  1. India has the largest Graphite reserves in the world.
  2. Graphite is a good conductor of heat and electricity.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2