India and G7

2022 JUL 2

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  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi attended the G7 summit in Germany.


  • The G-7 or ‘Group of Seven’ was formed in 1975 as a result of the Oil crisis and global currency exchange issues, by the top economies of that time, as an informal forum to discuss pressing world issues.
  • At present, it consists of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
    • The G-7 was known as the ‘G-8’ for several years after Russia joined in 1997. But Russia was expelled in 2014 following its annexation of the Crimea region of Ukraine and the Group returned to being called G-7.
  • The G-7 does not have a formal constitution or a fixed headquarters.
  • The G-7 nations meet at annual summits that are presided over by leaders of member countries on a rotational basis.
  • The decisions taken by leaders during annual summits are non-binding.



  • India has been intermittently attending the summit meetings since the early 2000s as an invitee.
  • In 2019, in a first, Minister Narendra Modi attended the G7 Summit in France as a special guest.
  • Now, India has become a regular invitee at the Summit. In 2022, PM Modi spoke about climate change, energy transitions and food security.


  • Statement Commitment on Ukraine:
    • G-7 countries underlined their condemnation of “Russia’s illegal and unjustifiable war of aggression against Ukraine” and said they will support Ukraine with financial, humanitarian, military, and diplomatic support.
  • Annex on sanctions on Russia:
    • Coordination on sanctions, especially on the prohibition of transport of oil through sea routes.
  • Statement on Global Food Security:
    • G-7 parties remained on target to raise $100 billion and lift 500 million from malnutrition by 2030.
  • Partnership for Global Infrastructure and Investment (PGII):
    • Plan to mobilise USD 600 billion over the next five years to narrow the global investment gap
  • On Climate change:
    • Statements on Climate change and on Just Transition partnerships between the G7 and India, Indonesia, South Africa, Senegal and Vietnam to ensure they are able to keep global warming levels between 1.5 and 2 degrees Celsius.
  • Statement on Resilient democracies:
    • Committing to ensure free and fair elections, protection of civil society, promoting human rights online and offline, and achieving gender equality.

(NOTE: Direct questions on the outcomes of the summit are less likely to be asked. However, they can be used in questions related to addressing climate change, investments, rule-based world order and globalization.)


  • Recognition of India’s growth:
    • India, the world’s largest democracy, possesses the fastest GDP growth and has an economy much greater than many of the G7 members. Regular invites for G7 summits show India's new position in world order.
  • Countering China:
    • G7’s initiatives, such as Partnership for Global Infrastructure and Investment and its statement on resilient democracy is seen as the bloc’s effort to counter China and its ‘Belt and Road Initiative’.
  • Attract investments:
    • Consisting of the richest countries, G7 is a good source of investment for India. Eg: Citing India’s track record in combating climate change, PM Modi invited the G7 countries to tap the huge market for clean energy technologies emerging in India.
  • Tackling Climate change:
    • G7 nations’ have promised setting aside USD 100 billion annually to finance mitigation and transfer of technology to developing countries to meet the challenges posed by climate change. This is vital for India’s efforts in attaining carbon neutrality by 2070.  
  • Post pandemic recovery:
    • Initiatives like the Partnership for Global Infrastructure and Investment are vital in the economic recovery after the pandemic.
  • Secure national interests:
    • Close ties with the G7 could help New Delhi further its security and foreign policy interests, especially at the nuclear club and UN Security Council reforms.
  • More voice in geopolitics:
    • Deliberations at the G-20 are confined to those concerning the global economy and financial markets, while the G7 discusses a broad range of issues such as security and energy. Hence, close ties with G7 can help India have a better say in geopolitics.
  • Strengthen G-20:
    • India is taking over the Presidency of G20 at the end of the year from Indonesia and the G20’s ranks include all members of the G7. Their support will be vital for the success for India’s upcoming G20 Presidency.


  • “First World Elite Club”:
    • The G7 represent more than 50% of Global GDP, but just 10% of the world population. However, G7 hasn’t grown nor has it revised its membership, despite some of its members not being the world’s top economies anymore.
  • Declining relevance:
    • The present configuration of G7 no longer reflects global realities. Emerging markets like India have grown to become growth centers and far more important to every significant issue that G7 deals with, such as climate change, clean energy, and health pandemics.
  • Promotes polarization:
    • By cutting out Russia and China, the G-7 ensure the polarisation of the world into the two blocs, even as ties between Russia and China get stronger.
  • Priority of agendas:
    • The fact that G-7 countries are also military partners means that the economic agenda of the grouping often takes a backseat over political issues such as the Russia-Ukraine war and the tussle with China.
  • Internal conflicts:
    • There are deep differences among its members on issues including climate change, security contributions, Iran, etc. Hence, the G7’s effectiveness as a multilateral forum is questioned.


India is a natural ally for the G7 countries in defending the shared values from a host of threats stemming from authoritarianism, terrorism and violent extremism, disinformation and economic coercion. However, 20th century institutions of global governance have not reformed to reflect the established importance of emerging economies to the world. Hence, the G7 need to think of reforming itself if it is to remain relevant.


Q. 20th century institutions of global governance have not reformed to reflect the established importance of emerging economies. Analyse the statement with special reference to the G7?